Tag Archives: Crimean War

Facts About Florence Nightingale – Empowered Woman of Medicine (Part 2)

(Continued from 5/6/2018 Read Part 1 here.)

She became the “Angel of the Crimea”

1853 marked the beginning of the Crimean War. Allied with Turkey, the British and French joined the effort to prohibit the expansion of Russia. The sick and wounded troops were sent to Scutari, a city near Constantinople (Istanbul.) London Times correspondent William Howard Russell wrote articles depicting the horrendous disorganization of the hospitals. The British public demanded that their soldiers receive better treatment.

Sidney Herbert, called back to his position as Secretary of War for the British Government, called on Florence Nightingale to lead a group of nurses to Scutari. She gathered a party of 38 working nurses and traveled to Scutari where she would set up shop at the Barrack Hospital in 1854. What she found appalled her. Overcrowding, filthy conditions, a lack of supplies, and an uncooperative staff needed her immediate attention and talents. At first, the medical officers and army surgeons thwarted her attempts, but when injured soldiers from the Battle of Balaklava and the Battle of Inkerman flooded the hospital beyond capacity, they had no choice but to give Florence her way.

She revolutionized nursing

Florence Nightingale | Kari Bovee | Empowered Women in HIstoryNightingale set to work making reforms at Scutari. She reached out to the London Times for aid and obtained the funds for necessary medical supplies. She had the wards cleaned and created a laundry with the help of the soldiers’ wives to provide clean linens and bandages for the sick and wounded. Florence insisted on patients receiving baths, clean clothing, and adequate nutrition. The nurses were instructed to help the soldiers write letters home to aid in their psychological healing. Nightingale herself kept a vigilant watch day and night on her wards and became known as the “Lady of the Lamp” due to her nighttime rounds.

Nightingale’s reforms reduced the mortality rate at Scutari to less than 2 percent. Word of this got back home to England and Nightingale became a celebrity.

She affected positive change

After Florence returned to England, her legacy lived on. Nightingale was not only instrumental in reforming hospital care throughout England and the world through her works and her writing, she also established training for district nursing, where patients could receive adequate care at home. In 1855, she established the Nightingale Fund, and in 1860, she founded the Nightingale School of Nursing at St. Thomas Hospital in London. She was also instrumental in the forming of a school for midwives at King’s College Hospital in London.

Based on Nightingale’s statistical data (she developed the Coxcomb chart which assessed mortality rates) a Royal Commission was sent to India to examined health conditions there, and major reforms were established.

She received the highest honors

King Edward honored Florence with the esteemed Order of Merit, making her the first woman in history to receive it. She also received the title “Lady of Grace” from the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1907, Queen Victoria presented Nightingale with an engraved brooch that later became known as the “Nightingale Jewel.” She also granted her $250,000 to continue her legacy.

She is part of present-day nursing program graduation and pinning ceremonies today

Florence Nightingale is still an important figure in the medical community today. At many nursing programs and schools the “Nightingale Pledge” is recited, followed by a “lighting ceremony.” Candles or lamps are used to signify the “lamp of knowledge” and also pay tribute to Nightingale herself, the “lady of the lamp.”

Nightingale Pledge, (1935 version)

“I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly, to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, and will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping, and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling. With loyalty will I endeavor to aid the physician in his work, and as a ‘missioner of health’ I will dedicate myself to devoted service to human welfare.

Called “the Lady of the Lamp” and the “Angel of the Crimea,” Florence Nightingale forever changed the face medical care in England and around the world. Her works and her legacy live on in history and are still relevant today. She was a woman who listened to her calling, knew her truth, and remained steadfast to her purpose until the end of her life.

In 1910, at age 90, Nightingale died in her sleep.

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Facts About Florence Nightingale – Empowered Woman of Medicine (Part 1)

She was Named for the city of her birth

Born to William Edward and Frances Nightingale in 1920, Florence, and her older sister were both named after the cities of their birth. While on an extended honeymoon that lasted a few years, the couple gave birth to Frances Parthenope while they toured Parthenope, Italy, a Greek settlement which is now part of Naples, Italy. Shortly thereafter, they welcomed their second daughter into the world, whom we know now as the mother of modern nursing, Florence, while in Florence, Italy.

She came from inherited wealth

Florence’s father came into the world as William Edward Shore. In 1815, upon his great-uncle’s death, he inherited the family estate and changed his name to Nightingale. The family split their time between two grand homes in Embley, Hampshire and Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. They also spent the social season in London. As most wealthy girls in Victorian England, Florence was expected to marry a man of equal or greater wealth, live a luxurious life, produce children, and run the household. Florence knew early on her destiny lay elsewhere.

She was highly educated

Precocious as a child, Florence excelled in mathematics and languages. At a young age, she became fluent in French, German, Italian, Greek and Latin. Not only could she speak the languages, she could also read and write in these languages. Florence’s father took delight in his daughter’s intellect and encourage her education. He supported her in all of her studies including history, philosophy, and literature.

She felt “called” to her profession 

As a young girl, Florence felt called by God to help people. She often took care of the sick and injured wherever the family lived. 

Like many wealthy, educated, upper-class young adults, Florence embarked on several tours to finish out her education. While on these tours, she wrote about her experiences. She traveled to Greece and Egypt where she wrote of “spiritual grandeur,” and of being called to “do good for him [God] alone and without reputation.”

She became a published writer at 30 years of age

In 1950 she traveled to Germany where she visited a Lutheran community. The trip proved life-changing for her. She witnessed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and his assistant deaconesses serving the sick and deprived. In 1851 she wrote The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine for the Practical Training of Deaconesses and published it anonymously.

Her most famous literary contribution is her Notes on Nursing, What It Is and What It Is Not. It has been in continuous publication worldwide since 1859.

She rejected an exemplary marriage proposal after a 9-year courtship

As a wealthy, attractive, and charming young woman, Florence had the makings of a beneficial wife. She had several suitors, but the most ardent of them was Richard Monckton Milnes who pursued her for nine years. While she might have had mutual feelings for the politician who also had a romantic side and was an accomplished poet, Florence rejected him. She felt marriage and childbearing would interfere with her calling to nursing.

She knew influential people and was well connected

While traveling in Rome, Florence met Sidney Herbert, the former Secretary of War for the British government, while on his honeymoon. Nightingale, Herbert, and his wife became lifelong friends. Her friendship with Herbert would change her life and put her in the history books. She would later serve as his key advisor throughout the rest of his political career. She also became friendly with the influential theologian Benjamin Jowett who was Master of Balliol College at Oxford University

 She Said Yes to Her Calling

Although Florence’s family had reservations about her calling to nursing, they eventually accepted it. Florence enrolled at the Institution of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserswerth in Germany. There she learned hospital administration and basic nursing skills. Later she became the superintendent of the Institution for Sick Gentlewomen in Distressed Services in London. There she honed her skills as an administrator. She realized she had a talent for organization and leadership and intended to apply for the superintendent of nurses position at King’s College Hospital in London. Instead, she received another call. (Continued next week!)

 

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