Category Archives: BLOGGING

Upcoming Book Release – Shoot like a Girl!

Watch this video about my upcoming e-book release, Shoot like a Girl, the prequel novella to Girl with a Gun. 

If you like Annie Oakley, you will love these tales of intrigue in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show!

You can purchase Girl with a Gun at these retailers.

Spark Press: https://gosparkpress.com/product/girl-with-a-gun/

Amazon: https://amzn.to/2MyCdrs

Barnes & Nobel: https://bit.ly/2xTsplN

 

 

Annie Oakley horse

The Life and Times of Annie Oakley (Repost from 2012)

Phoebe Ann Mosey, (or Moses) most commonly known as Annie Oakley, learned self-reliance at a young age. Her family lived in a cabin near Greenville, Ohio, where the winters were often treacherous. When she was six years old, Annie’s father left the home in a snowstorm. He returned frost-bitten and grievously ill. He died a few months later of pneumonia, leaving the family in a dire financial situation. Her mother married again but the finances did not improve. Unable to feed all of her children, Susan Mosey sent Annie and her older sister, Sarah Ellen, to the “poorhouse” also known as The Darke County Infirmary. Put in the care of the superintendent and his wife, and Annie and Sarah learned housekeeping skills in addition to embroidery and sewing.

In the spring of 1870, Annie was “boarded out” to a couple to help care for their son and help with household chores. The job paid fifty cents a week and the couple assured Annie and her mother she would receive an education. The couple did not keep their promises, nor did they pay on a regular basis. Not much is known of this couple, and Annie never mentioned their names but only referred to them as “the wolves.”

Exceptionally cruel to their young charge, the couple would often beat Annie or lock her in a closet. Once, when she fell asleep doing some darning, they punished her by throwing her out into the snow with no shoes for the night.

After two years of abuse from “the wolves,” Annie escaped and found her way back to her mother, who was again widowed and remarried. The family still lived in poverty.

Annie OakleyThe only item that remained in the house belonging to Annie’s father was his shotgun. Longing for her father, Annie taught herself to shoot and started hunting game to help feed her family. Word got out about Annie’s deadly aim and she soon started selling the game she killed to the locals in Greenville, as well as to the restaurants and hotels in Southern Ohio. Her birds were well sought after because Annie always hit the birds in the back of the head, leaving no shot pellets in the tender meat. By fifteen years of age, Annie made enough money to pay off the mortgage on the family farm.

On Thanksgiving Day in 1875, the Baughman and Butler shooting act came to Cincinnati. Shooting was a popular past time and shooting contests were the perfect way for people to showcase their talents. Frank Butler, the traveling show’s marksman placed a bet for $100 (equivalent now to about $2,000) that he could beat any local shooter. Annie’s friends and family urged her to travel to the big city and try her luck. In the end, luck had nothing to do with it, but pure skill did. Imagine Butler’s surprise when fifteen-year-old, five-foot petite Annie turned up as one of the challengers. One by one, the targets were released (either live birds or glass balls). Annie shot and then Frank shot, neither one missing until the 25th target.  Frank missed. The young, child-faced girl from Greenville won.

While most men might have had their pride wounded, or might have been angry at a teenage girl besting them at this coveted skill, Frank Butler’s reaction was quite different. Smitten by Annie, after the contest he gave her tickets to his show. Soon, the two fell in love and married. Annie joined the Baughman and Butler shooting act, not as a shooter, but as Frank’s assistant. One week, Baughman could not perform due to illness. Annie stepped in. Per her usual performance, she never missed a target and the crowd fell in love with the pretty petite sharpshooter. She permanently replaced Baughman and the couple took their show on the road.

In 1885, Annie auditioned for Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show. Impressed with her accuracy and lady-like demeanor, Bill Cody hired her, and Frank became her manager. Annie soon became the star attraction of the show and remained so for seventeen years.

Whether she used a pistol, rifle, or shotgun, “Little Sure Shot,” as she was named by Chief Sitting Bull (also a star of the show,) rarely missed. Her feats included shooting a dime in midair at 90 feet, shooting the thin edge of a playing card at 90 feet and then puncturing it with six or seven more shots before it hit the ground.

Shooting the ashes off of a cigarette placed in Frank’s mouth always pleased the crowd. While touring in Europe, the Crown Prince of Germany demanded Annie shoot a cigarette from his mouth, but she would only do it if he held the cigarette in his hand. It wouldn’t do if the American “sure shot” blew the face off the Prince of Germany!

In 1901, Annie suffered massive injuries in a train accident while traveling with the Wild West Show through North Carolina. After five spinal surgeries and temporary paralysis, she recovered. The injury did not affect her shooting skill and she continued to set records.

Annie Oakley medalsIn 1902 Annie left the Wild West Show to pursue a quieter life. She began an acting career and performed in a stage play written especially for her called The Western Girl. Annie also used her talents for philanthropy. She traveled the East coast, at her own expense, demonstrating the safe and effective use of firearms for World War I soldiers. Involved in women’s causes, Annie helped young girls, orphans, and widows to further their education. She believed it was crucial for women to “know how to handle firearms as “naturally as they know how to handle babies” and it is believed she taught over 15,000 women to use a gun.

In 1904, William Randolph Hearst published a false story that Annie Oakley had been arrested for theft to support a cocaine habit. The story caught fire and newspapers all around the country printed the report. The woman who had actually been arrested was a burlesque performer who used the name “Annie Oakley.” Still, the newspapers, ever eager for a story of a fallen hero, persisted.

Annie spent the next six years in court trying to regain her reputation. She won 54 out of 55 libel lawsuits against the newspapers. Hearst, in an attempt to avoid paying court judgments of $20,000, sent a private investigator to Darke County to get dirt on the famous sharpshooter. They found nothing.

Well into her sixties, Annie continued her philanthropic work and also participated in shooting activities. In 1922 Annie entered a shooting contest at sixty-two years of age. She hit 100 clay targets in a row from 48 feet. Later that year, she and Frank were in a car accident where Annie sustained more injuries. Again, the injuries didn’t stop her and she continued to set records until 1924.

In 1925 Annie’s health finally gave out. She died of pernicious anemia at the age of sixty-six.

Annie Oakley, an American hero, is considered a role model for men and women alike because of her accomplishments and her moral character. She has been the subject of numerous articles and biographies, film and stage dramatizations, and her story is present in many historical museums. She was also inducted into the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, Texas.

Annie Oakley’s motto for life: “Aim at a high mark and you will hit it. No, not the first time, nor the second and maybe not the third. But keep on aiming and keep on shooting for only practice will make you perfect. Finally, you’ll hit the Bull’s-Eye of Success.”

On June 19, 2018, my historical fiction novel Girl with a Gun – An Annie Oakley Mystery was released by Spark Press. You can find a copy at these retailers:

Spark Press: https://gosparkpress.com/product/girl-with-a-gun/

Amazon:  https://amzn.to/2vWAXUq

Barnes & Noble: https://bit.ly/2xTsplN

Powells: http://www.powells.com/book/-9781943006601

References: www.annieoakleyfoundation.org/bio.html, Women in History, Living vignettes of notable women from U.S. History, www.lkwdpl.org/wihoio;oakl-ann.htm, Wikipedia,

 

Women of Hollywood – Clara Bow

Named the first ever “It girl,” Clara Bow, America’s favorite flapper, made a huge impact in the roaring twenties and was known as one of the decade’s leading sex symbols.

Raised as an only child, (her two siblings before her died) Clara’s survival is nothing short of miraculous. The doctors warned Sarah Frances (Gordon) Bow, and Robert Walter Bow, not to have another child after the death of the first two. But Clara was destined for the world and was born one hot July day in 1905. A survivor from birth, Clara would spend the rest of her days fighting for her dreams of a good life and stardom.

Her existence was tough from the get-go as her parents, suffering from poverty, struggled to make ends meet. Her father stayed away from home most of the time, and when he returned, often verbally and physically abused (by some accounts)  his wife and Clara. Clara, outcast by the other girls because of her ragged clothes, carrot-colored hair, and tomboy ways much preferred the company of boys.

Often lonely and unhappy, Clara sought to escape from her fractious home life by going to the movies. She said of these forays into the darkened theater, “For the first time in my life I knew there was beauty in the world.”

Clara BowAt sixteen years old, she decided to pursue a career in film. Her father, probably seeing dollar signs in his future, encouraged her, but her mother did not agree with the decision. Against her mother’s wishes and at the urging of her father, Clara entered a nationwide acting contest called “Fame and Fortune” sponsored by a Brewster’s Publications Magazine in 1921.

Showing up in her tomboyish sweater, lackluster skirt, and with absolutely no experience, Clara’s chances of winning were slim. But when she turned on the emotion, she won the judges over. She walked away with a silver trophy and an evening gown. The magazine’s publisher vowed to help her secure roles in film, but nothing happened despite her father’s relentless pressure to pursue the offer. Finally, a female director named Christy Cabanne cast her in a movie called Beyond the Rainbow released in 1922.

After the contest, Clara dropped out of high school to pursue her dreams. Her work in Beyond the Rainbowled to another role in a movie called Down to the Sea in Ships. Clara felt she was on her way, but then tragedy struck. Her mother, suffering from psychosis and epilepsy, brought on by a head injury in her youth, struggled with her mental health. The roles of mother and daughter gradually became reversed and Clara, as a young girl, tried her best to take care of her mother during and after her epileptic fits. Her often absent father offered little help and left Clara alone to deal with her mother’s erratic fits of rage and temper. One night, during one of Sarah’s rages, Clara woke up to her mother holding a knife at her throat, screaming at her. Clara’s father soon had Sarah committed, separating the two. Even though Clara knew this act was in her best interest, it still caused her great distress. In 1923, Sarah died from her epilepsy.

That same year, Clara left her father and New York and headed for Hollywood. She secured several other silent film roles and charmed audiences with her perky personality and her natural,  bold sexuality. Her roles were comprised of working-class girls, showgirls, manicurists, etc. who had big ambitions in life. These characters often flew in the face of societal and sexual convention and pursued the life of partygoing, independence, and freedom. She portrayed the perfect, adorable and charming “flapper” and the motion picture world took notice.

In 1926 she signed her first big movie contract with Paramount Pictures, and in1927 she landed the role of poor, shop-girl Betty Lou Spence in the movie It, adapted from the novella written by author Elinor Glyn. The movie was an instant box office success and Clara Bow became Paramount’s most popular star, and America’s first “It girl.”

Clara Bow evening gownClara starred in 46 silent films, and despite her heavy Brooklyn accent and marginal singing voice, transitioned to “talkies” and starred in eleven more motion pictures. Her star burned bright, but at age 26, the actress burned out under the tremendous pressure put on her by the studios and her demanding schedule. She also showed signs of mental instability, much like her mother, no doubt brought on by her stressful career. Due to her status as a sex symbol, Clara was also the subject of many scandals. Women, jealous of the actress’s natural sex appeal often accused her publically of husband stealing. Although she had affairs with many men during her heyday, “husband stealing” was not in her repertoire.

In 1931, Clara retired from acting and married Rex Bell, a rancher from Texas. She dropped out of Hollywood and went to live with him on his ranch to recuperate. After returning to health, she re-entered Hollywood with a bang. Everyone wanted her. She signed a contract with Fox Film Corporation for a two-picture deal. Both films, Savage and Hoop-La were well received. She officially retired from acting two years later and devoted her life to her husband and sons.

But, Clara could not escape her demons. Her gradual slide into mental illness culminated in a suicide attempt in 1944. She checked herself into a psychiatric institute in 1949 where she was diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with electric shock therapy. When she was released, she did not return to the ranch but instead bought a modest bungalow where she lived out the rest of her days until she succumbed to a heart attack in 1965.

Clara Bow found a way out of her lonely childhood to become one of America’s best-loved film icons and the highest paid actress of her day. She influenced some of the most powerful people in Hollywood, and also the common woman who wanted to personify the loveable flapper with her “Clara Bow heart-shaped lips” and her charming down-to-earth realism and individuality. She will live on in the hearts and minds of many through the multitudes of photographs taken of her and what remains of her silent and “talking” films.

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Mollie Johnson – Queen of the Blondes (Part Two)

Continued from 7/8/18 Read Part One here.
Prostitutes 1800's
Prostitutes 1800’s

In 1879, a fire raged through Deadwood, burning many places to the ground including Mollie’s. The day before the fire, one of Mollie’s girls had died due to either injury from a cat bite, or some other illness. She lay in her coffin in Mollie’s parlor as the roof caught fire. Mollie made no action to save her furnishings or herself until someone could take the young woman’s body to the neighboring town of City Creek, for burial.

Though Mollie had a reputation for a lack of generosity toward other “soiled doves” of Deadwood, the newspapers, particularly the Black Hills Daily Times, loved to stir up controversy concerning the popular madam. In one instance, the Times alluded to Mollie providing information to the U.S. Marshall regarding three of her competitors selling alcohol without a license. Mollie retorted back in a note to the Times stating she would do nothing of the kind against her “sisters in sin.” The Times later stated they received their information from another source.

Though newspapers like the Black Hills Daily Times loved to report stories of Mollie’s wickedness, they also gave her credit for her generosity with local girls like Miss Pettijohn and Miss Woodall, and also for her financial support of Irish Famine Relief.

According to Bryant, with the passing of time, the stories of Mollie Johnson became less and less frequent. He alludes to the idea she traveled more, or that perhaps the newspapers just lost interest. Maybe with age, Mollie settled down and didn’t give them much to write about.

We may never know what prodded Mollie to become a prostitute like so many other women who settled in the west. Perhaps she had no family and struggled to survive, or perhaps she saw an opportunity to become a businesswoman in a time that didn’t allow women to prosper by any other means. Whether or not the stories are true, the accounts of Mollie’s life and her business paint a colorful portrait of a woman who made an impact on the town of Deadwood, South Dakota, and the history of the wild west of the late 1800’s.

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Mollie Johnson – Queen of the Blondes (Part One)

Life was tough in the 1800’s. Especially for women, and especially in the West. While most women married, or worked in service, or took respectable professions like teaching, others took a road less-than-acceptable for survival. Some even prospered on that road. Women like Mollie Johnson, prostitute turned madam, and self-proclaimed “Queen of the Blondes.”

Historical accounts of the early life of Mollie Johnson, or why she turned to prostitution are not recorded. In fact, not much is known about Mollie at all, aside from newspaper accounts consolidated into an article written by Jerry L. Bryant in Deadwood Magazine, 2002. According to Bryant, his research was gleaned from some 40 articles in Deadwood newspapers. He also states that upon publication of the article, he re-researched and discovered that most reports were possibly only representative of bordello life in Deadwood in the 1880’s. Either way, Mollie proved a sensation for news of the day.

Mollie's Brothel
Possibly Mollie’s Brothel

Accounts record she started working in the trade in her mid-teens when she headed west from Alabama during the American gold rush. She settled in Deadwood, South Dakota, a town known for its ruthlessness, and highly populated with men out to seek their fortunes in gold. According to Bryant’s article, in 1880 the census revealed Mollie claimed to be twenty-seven years old, a widow, and that she lived with five young ladies from all over the United States—all of them blond, either naturally or by artificial means. It is not known when she transitioned from mere prostitute to madam, but somewhere along the line, she secured a house in Deadwood on the corner of Sherman and Lee streets and started making money. Quite a lot of money. It was then she became known as “Queen of the Blondes,” and many a gentleman visited her place with regularity.

Mollie’s first moment of notoriety came in 1878 when a story of her appeared in a local paper for marrying Lew Spencer, an African American actor/comedian who performed at the Bella Union Theater. The details of the affection the couple had for each other is uncertain. Mollie reportedly never gave up her profession. Later in the year, while in Denver, Lew Spencer was arrested for fatally shooting his “wife,” although Mollie was very much alive in Deadwood at the time.

Lew did not hang for his crime, but pursued his vocal career and reportedly recorded the earliest known version of the song, A Hot Time in the Old Town, in 1896. The song later became the theme song for Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders. It is not known if Mollie and Lew reunited after his stint in prison, but it seems the two became estranged.

Mollie, her girls, and their notorious antics provided great fodder for the local papers, and a source of gossip for the townspeople of Deadwood and abroad. According to accounts, Mollie and her girls often hosted wild parties and balls in the Firehouse, or warehouses throughout town. She also, reportedly, often rented a pricey carriage and went about Deadwood heckling other “working girls” for not working for her. She also never failed to report abusive or ill-behaving customers to the local law enforcement.

There are also reports of her motherly sternness, kindness, and compassion. Mollie often encouraged wayward girls to live a virtuous life and took them in as boarders. Two girls living in the town, Miss Pettijohn and Miss Woodall, had proven themselves to be out-of-control “hell-raisers.” Their mothers had gone to great lengths to change them but to no avail. While attending a ball thrown by either Mollie or the other reigning madam in town, Dora DuFran, the girls’ mothers’ requested that the sheriff arrest them and deposit them at Mollie’s place for rehabilitation. Mollie agreed to the task, much to the mothers’ relief. Under Mollie’s care, the two girls had to fly right or suffer the consequences.

Stay tuned for Part Two of Mollie Johnson, Queen of the Blondes Part Two next week!

 

 

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Coco Chanel

Seven Mysteries of Coco Chanel (Part Two)

(Continued from last week – find Part One here.)
Her reasons for closing shop

After the stock market crash in 1929, many businesses struggled, including Coco Chanel’s couture house. In 1939, at the outbreak of WWII, she closed down her shops, leaving over 3,000 employees out of work. Some suggest she did this in retaliation against those workers who took part in the labor strike in France in 1936, which forced her to close her business at the time. She maintained that wartime was not a time for fashion. Only Coco knew her motivations during that period in history.

Her Nazi affiliation

Coco ChanelIt is suggested that Coco Chanel, influenced by her lover the Duke of Westminster—an outspoken anti-Semite, had little tolerance for the Jewish population. This idea is further supported because, during the German occupation in France, Chanel had an affair with a German diplomat, Baron Hans Gunther von Dincklage. Chanel received special permission to continue her residence at the Hotel Ritz in Paris, the preferred residence of high ranking German officials. It was also rumored that through von Dincklage, Chanel may have served as a Nazi spy. When the war ended, Chanel was interrogated about her relationship with von Dincklage and her affiliation with the Nazis. Some believe her friend Winston Churchill came to her aid. Chanel was never officially charged. She left Paris to spend time in Switzerland.

Her relationship with the Wertheimers

Early in her career, Chanel met businessman and director of a well-known perfume and cosmetics business, Pierre Wertheimer, through a mutual friend, Theophile Bader. Together, with Pierre’s brother Paul, they created “Parfums Chanel,” with the Wertheimers providing full financing, marketing, and distribution of Coco’s classic fragrance Chanel No. 5. The agreement stipulated that the Wertheimers received seventy percent of the profit, Bader twenty percent, and Chanel ten percent—with the caveat she allowed them to run operations of Parfums Chanel. She never got over the disappointment at the deal and made no secret of her dislike of the Wertheimers, who were Jewish. One wonders why she would agree to such a contract, but she must have had her reasons.

She decided to sue. In 1924, they renegotiated the original contract and in 1947, Chanel received wartime profits of the perfume, estimated at nine million dollars in today’s money. She also would receive two percent of all sales worldwide. In addition, Wertheimer agreed to pay for Chanel’s living expenses for the rest of her life.

When Chanel, at seventy years of age, revived her couture house in 1954, Wertheimer financed the business.

 Her morphine addiction and death

Coco Chanel ran with a fast crowd. At least two biographies, one by Lisa Chaney, and another by Hal Vaughan maintain that Chanel was a habitual user of opiates, particularly morphine.

Chanel died in her suite at the Hotel Ritz in Paris in 1971 at eighty-seven years of age. Some accounts state she wasn’t feeling well, and after returning from a walk with a friend went to bed and died peacefully in her sleep. Others allude to the supposition that upon retiring to bed, she gave herself one last injection. She might have, but whether it killed her has not been recorded.

One thing is certain, Coco Chanel liked to keep everyone guessing. From her birthdate to her upbringing, to her reasons for not marrying—and even how she died, this fashion icon who changed the world with her smart and elegant fashions, definitely had the last word.

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Coco Chanel

Seven Mysteries of Coco Chanel (Part One)

From inauspicious beginnings to fame and fortune, Coco Chanel, one of the world’s most revered women of fashion, found empowerment in her own way.

While she lived most of her time on earth in the public eye, accounts of some facets of her history have been up for debate, as she, the master of her own destiny, often changed the facts of her own history to suit her needs. Here are a few mysteries surrounding Miss Chanel.

Her name
Coco Chanel
(Wikipedia)

According to most accounts, Coco’s parents named her Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel. At birth, someone entered her name into the registry as Gabrielle Bonheur Chasnel. This was later reported to be a clerical error as her mother was too ill to attend the registry and her father was traveling. Most sources agree that the name Coco came from a time in her early twenties when she worked on stage as a singer in clubs in Vichy and Moulins. The two songs she sang between other stage acts were “Ko Ko Ri Ko” and “Qui qu’avuCoco.” She later stated that the name came from a shortened version of the French word “cocotte,” which translates to “kept woman.” In some accounts, she states it was a nickname given to her by her father.

Her upbringing

Most sources agree Coco was born to an unmarried couple named Eugenie (Jeanne) Devolleand Albert Chanel. Jeanne worked as a laundress, and Albert a traveling peddler. The couple later married. When she was twelve years old, her mother died from tuberculosis, and her father sent Coco and her sisters to an orphanage in Aubazine run by Catholic nuns. Although her life at the orphanage demanded frugality and strict discipline, this is where she learned to sew. Other accounts claim she perfected her sewing on weekend visits to see two of her aunts. Coco later told another version of the story: her father set out for America to seek his fortune and she was sent to live with her two aunts. She also claimed she was much younger than twelve years old when her mother died.

Her lovers

Coco ChanelCoco Chanel never married, but ever the modern woman, she had many notable lovers—who helped to advance her career and status in life.

At the age of twenty, she started an affair with the French socialite, horse breeder and polo player Etienne Balsan. Balsan saw her at the Moulin and became smitten. Through Balsan, Coco met many influential people, including the wealthy Arthur “Boy” Capel, with whom she also had an enduring affair. Balsan financed a millinery shop for Chanel, and later, Capel helped her to establish a high-end boutique where she launched her famous jersey suits and the “little black dress.”

Both men left her to marry more socially “eligible” women of title, but they remained friends. When Capel died in a car crash in 1919, Chanel reportedly said, “In losing Capel, I lost everything. What followed was not a life of happiness.

In 1923, she met the Duke of Westminster while attending a party on his yacht. The two began a decade-long affair. He lavished her with expensive gifts and set her up in a home in the Mayfair district of London. In 1927, he gifted her with land on the French Riviera where she built a villa she named La Prusa.It is uncertain why the Duke and Chanel did not marry, but Chanel said of their break up, “There have been several Duchesses of Westminster, but there is only one Chanel.

During her involvement with the Duke, she met and charmed Edward III, the Prince of Wales. Some accounts state she had a fling with the Prince who was known for his philandering ways, but others don’t mention him.

(Check back next week for Seven Mysteries of Coco Chanel – Part Two!)

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Interesting Facts About Harriet Tubman (Part 2)

More Interesting Facts About Harriet Tubman! (Read part 1 here.)

She never lost a passenger on the Underground Railroad.

Having reached safety in Philadelphia, Harriet felt confident she could help others. She became involved in the Underground Railroad. She immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Working slowly, one group at a time, she freed her immediate family and distant relatives. Dubbed  “Moses” for the deliverance of her people, Harriet made twelve to thirteen missions to free approximately 70 more slaves.

Harriet always carried a gun and was not above threatening anyone with immediate death who aimed to stop her crusade—even the slaves she rescued if they got scared and wanted to turn back.

She became a nurse, scout, and a spy for the Union forces during the Civil War.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Harriet wanted to join the Union cause to end slavery. Hearing of her heroism in freeing her people, and known for her intelligence and bravery, a group of Boston and Philadelphia abolitionists in Port Royal brought her on. She nursed the soldiers suffering from dysentery and smallpox.

In 1863, the group, under the orders of Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War, and Harriet lead a band of scouts through the marshes and rivers of South Carolina, providing intelligence on the enemy. She was the first woman to lead an armed assault when Colonel James Montgomery raided plantations along the Combahee River. They freed over 750 slaves.

She joined the Suffragist movement.

Harriet TubmanLater in life, Harriet became involved with the cause for women’s suffrage. She would join forces with women such as Susan B. Anthony and Emily Howland. She traveled to various cities on the East coast speaking in favor of the rights of women. In 1896, at the founding of the National Federation of Afro-American Women, Harriet served as the keynote speaker for their first meeting. The following year, a series of receptions took place in Boston, honoring Harriet for her years of service.

She refused anesthesia when she had brain surgery.

Due to the head injury she suffered as a child, Harriet, in her older years, developed insomnia due to the pain and buzzing in her head. She elected to have brain surgery to relieve the condition, but refused to be anesthetized and instead opted to “bite down on a bullet,” as she had seen many soldiers do for surgery in the Civil War. The operation did give her some relief making her more comfortable.

She Died in Poverty.

Harriet never received any kind of salary for her service. Any money she made she used for her humanitarian work to help former slaves and her family. She purchased a small property in Auburn, New York, and provided shelter for most of her family and some friends. She took in boarders to help pay the bills. In 1873, she was swindled out of money in a gold deal, leaving her penniless.

In 1895, after an initial denial from the government, Harriet received the pension of her second husband, Nelson Charles Davis, and then in 1898, she petitioned Congress for her own service in the Civil War. Finally, a year later, she received a pension of twenty dollars per month for her service as a nurse.

Because of mounting debts, in 1903, she donated her Auburn property to the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church under the condition they convert it to a home for aged and indigent people of color. The plan finally came to fruition five years later.

In 1911, Harriet’s body started to give out on her and she retired to the rest home she’d helped establish. At the time, a New York reporter described her  as “ill and penniless.”

She died in 1913, of pneumonia, surrounded by friends and family members.

Harriet Tubman did not receive the recognition she deserved while she lived, but history remembers her as an empowered woman of grit and integrity, who helped change the lives of her contemporaries, and the mindset of those who came after her.

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Interesting Facts About Harriet Tubman (Part 1)

Historians cannot agree on her birthdate.

Harriet Tubman’s birthdate seems to be a mystery, even (as records show) to her. Birth records of slaves were not often kept. The earliest date noted for Harriet’s birth, which appears on her death certificate, is 1815. A midwifery statement, and later a “slave runaway” advertisement states it as 1820. Her gravestone lists 1820. In her Civil War widow’s pension records, Tubman herself claims the date of her birth to be 1820, 1822, and 1825.

Growing up friends and family called her “Minty.”

Born Araminta Harriet Ross, her parents, Harriet “Rit” Green and Ben Ross called her Minty. She later changed her name to Harriet. Some records indicate she took the name Harriet when she married, and others state it happened when she escaped slavery.

She learned about resistance from her mother.

Harriet’s family, like many other slave families, suffered lifelong separation. Three of her sisters were sold to other families. When a slave trader from Georgia approached her family’s owner, Mr. Edward Brodess, about buying Minty’s younger brother, Rit, Minty’s mother, would not relent. With the help of other slaves and former slaves, she hid the boy away for a month. The trader came back, and when Brodess brought him to the slave quarters to take the child, Rit threatened to “split his head open.” Brodess relented and agreed not to sell the child.

She had visions which she claimed were revelations from God.

Harriet TubmanHarriet had a deep devotion to God. Never having learned to read or write, Harriet grew up hearing Bible stories from her mother. She liked the stories of deliverance in the Old Testament.

Early in her life, Minty’s owner often hired her out to other families. On one such occasion, when she ran an errand to the dry-goods store for supplies, she witnessed a skirmish between the store owner and a slave who had left the fields without permission. While trying to restrain the slave, the owner demanded that Minty help. She refused. As the other slave ran away, the owner threw a two-pound weight at him, but missed, hitting Minty in the head, splitting her skull. The injury resulted in seizures, visions, and vivid dreams which she felt were messages from God.

She escaped from slavery twice.

Harriet married for the first time around the year 1844 to John Tubman, a free African American man. There is no record of them having children together. Harriet’s head injury caused health problems for her for the rest of her life. She was often sick, and this made her not as valuable as a slave. When her owner died, his wife set out to sell many of her slaves, and because she had health problems, Harriet knew she would be one of the first to go. She figured escape made better sense, but her husband tried to talk her out of it, stating he refused to accompany her.

In the Fall of 1849, Harriett and her brothers, all hired out to the same farm, devised a plan for escape. Two weeks after their escape, Harriet’s owner, Eliza Brodess, posted a runaway notice in the Cambridge Democrat, offering a reward for each slave. Fearful of the repercussions if they continued, her brothers turned back. Harriet had no choice but to return with them.

Determined to have her freedom, she escaped again—this time alone. She utilized the Underground Network, a freedom network ran by enslaved and free African Americans, and white abolitionists—most prominently, the Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers. She made the 90-mile journey by night, traveling for several weeks, and finally made it to Pennsylvania and into freedom. This set her on a path that would change her life and the lives of so many others.

(Come back next week for more Interesting Facts About Harriet Tubman!)

 

Facts About Florence Nightingale – Empowered Woman of Medicine (Part 2)

(Continued from 5/6/2018 Read Part 1 here.)

She became the “Angel of the Crimea”

1853 marked the beginning of the Crimean War. Allied with Turkey, the British and French joined the effort to prohibit the expansion of Russia. The sick and wounded troops were sent to Scutari, a city near Constantinople (Istanbul.) London Times correspondent William Howard Russell wrote articles depicting the horrendous disorganization of the hospitals. The British public demanded that their soldiers receive better treatment.

Sidney Herbert, called back to his position as Secretary of War for the British Government, called on Florence Nightingale to lead a group of nurses to Scutari. She gathered a party of 38 working nurses and traveled to Scutari where she would set up shop at the Barrack Hospital in 1854. What she found appalled her. Overcrowding, filthy conditions, a lack of supplies, and an uncooperative staff needed her immediate attention and talents. At first, the medical officers and army surgeons thwarted her attempts, but when injured soldiers from the Battle of Balaklava and the Battle of Inkerman flooded the hospital beyond capacity, they had no choice but to give Florence her way.

She revolutionized nursing

Nightingale set to work making reforms at Scutari. She reached out to the London Times for aid and obtained the funds for necessary medical supplies. She had the wards cleaned and created a laundry with the help of the soldiers’ wives to provide clean linens and bandages for the sick and wounded. Florence insisted on patients receiving baths, clean clothing, and adequate nutrition. The nurses were instructed to help the soldiers write letters home to aid in their psychological healing. Nightingale herself kept a vigilant watch day and night on her wards and became known as the “Lady of the Lamp” due to her nighttime rounds.

Nightingale’s reforms reduced the mortality rate at Scutari to less than 2 percent. Word of this got back home to England and Nightingale became a celebrity.

She affected positive change

After Florence returned to England, her legacy lived on. Nightingale was not only instrumental in reforming hospital care throughout England and the world through her works and her writing, she also established training for district nursing, where patients could receive adequate care at home. In 1855, she established the Nightingale Fund, and in 1860, she founded the Nightingale School of Nursing at St. Thomas Hospital in London. She was also instrumental in the forming of a school for midwives at King’s College Hospital in London.

Based on Nightingale’s statistical data (she developed the Coxcomb chart which assessed mortality rates) a Royal Commission was sent to India to examined health conditions there, and major reforms were established.

She received the highest honors

King Edward honored Florence with the esteemed Order of Merit, making her the first woman in history to receive it. She also received the title “Lady of Grace” from the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1907, Queen Victoria presented Nightingale with an engraved brooch that later became known as the “Nightingale Jewel.” She also granted her $250,000 to continue her legacy.

She is part of present-day nursing program graduation and pinning ceremonies today

Florence Nightingale is still an important figure in the medical community today. At many nursing programs and schools the “Nightingale Pledge” is recited, followed by a “lighting ceremony.” Candles or lamps are used to signify the “lamp of knowledge” and also pay tribute to Nightingale herself, the “lady of the lamp.”

Nightingale Pledge, (1935 version)

“I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly, to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, and will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping, and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling. With loyalty will I endeavor to aid the physician in his work, and as a ‘missioner of health’ I will dedicate myself to devoted service to human welfare.

Called “the Lady of the Lamp” and the “Angel of the Crimea,” Florence Nightingale forever changed the face medical care in England and around the world. Her works and her legacy live on in history and are still relevant today. She was a woman who listened to her calling, knew her truth, and remained steadfast to her purpose until the end of her life.

In 1910, at age 90, Nightingale died in her sleep.

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